The Green Jay (Cyanocorax yncas) is a bird species of the New World jays, which exhibits distinct regional variations within its large but discontinuous range. The Green Jays of the Northern population are smaller, at 25–29 cm (10–11.5 in), than the South American birds, at 29.5–34.3 cm (11.7–13.6 in). Weight ranges from 66 to 110 grams (2.3–3.9 oz). They have feathers of yellowish-white with blue tips on the top of the head, cheeks and nape, though some taxa have more blue than others. In South American populations, the crown can appear almost entirely white, with less extensive blue. A black bib forms a thick band up to the sides of the head as well as a stripe through the eye line and one above it. The breast and underparts typically are bright to dull yellow, or strongly green-tinged in the far northernmost part of its range. The upper parts are rich green. It has large nasal bristles that form a distinct tuft in some subspecies, but are less developed in others. The color of the iris ranges from dark brownish to bright yellow depending on the subspecies.
The American Goldfinch (Carduelis tristis), also known as the Eastern Goldfinch, is a small North American bird in the finch family. It is migratory, ranging from mid-Alberta to North Carolina during the breeding season, and from just south of the Canadian border to Mexico during the winter. The only finch in its subfamily that undergoes a complete molt, the American Goldfinch displays sexual dimorphism in its coloration; the male is a vibrant yellow in the summer and an olive color during the winter months, while the female is a dull yellow-brown shade which brightens only slightly during the summer. The male displays brightly colored plumage during the breeding season to attract a mate.
The American Goldfinch is a granivore and adapted for the consumption of seedheads, with a conical beak to remove the seeds and agile feet to grip the stems of seedheads while feeding. It is a social bird, and will gather in large flocks while feeding and migrating. It may behave territorially during nest construction, but this aggression is short-lived. Its breeding season is tied to the peak of food supply, beginning in late July, which is relatively late in the year for a finch. This species is generallymonogamous, and produces one brood each year. Human activity has generally benefited the American Goldfinch. It is often found in residential areas, attracted to bird feeders which increase its survival rate in these areas. Deforestation also creates open meadow areas which are its preferred habitat.
The European Goldfinch or Goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis), is a small passerine bird in the finch family. The average Goldfinch is 12–13 cm long with a wingspan of 21–25 cm and a weight of 14 to 19 grams. The sexes are broadly similar, with a red face, black and white head, warm brown upperparts, white underparts with buff flanks and breast patches, and black and yellow wings.
On closer inspection male Goldfinches can often be distinguished by a larger, darker red mask that extends just behind the eye. In females, the red face does not reach the eye. The ivory-coloured bill is long and pointed, and the tail is forked. Goldfinches in breeding condition have a white bill, with a greyish or blackish mark at the tip for the rest of the year. Juveniles have a plain head and a greyer back but are unmistakable due to the yellow wing stripe. Birds in central Asia (caniceps group) have a plain grey head behind the red face, lacking the black and white head pattern of European and western Asian birds.
The goldfinch is native to Europe, North Africa, and western and central Asia. It is found in open, partially wooded lowlands and is a resident in the milder west of its range, but migrates from colder regions. It will also make local movements, even in the west, to escape bad weather. It has been introduced to many areas of the world. It was introduced at numerous places in south-eastern Australia in the 19th century, and their populations quickly increased and their range expanded greatly. They now occur from Brisbane to the Eyre Peninsula.
The Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus), also known as the mejiro (メジロ, 目白), is a small passerine bird in the white-eye family. The specific epithet is occasionally written japonica, but this is incorrect due to the gender of the genus. Its native range includes much of east Asia, including Japan, China, Vietnam, Taiwan, and the Philippines. It has been intentionally introduced to other parts of the world as a pet and as pest control, with mixed results. As one of the native species of the Japanese islands, it has been depicted in Japanese art on numerous occasions, and historically was kept as a cage bird. The Japanese White-eye is olive green on its back, from anterior to posterior, and is pale green on its underside. Its feet, legs, and bill range from black to brown. It has a green forehead and a yellow throat. The White-eye has rounded wings and a long, slender bill – both of which indicate this bird to be very acrobatic. Its wings are dark brown, but outlined in green. Like other white-eyes, this species exhibits the distinctive white eyering that gives it its name (mejiro also meaning “white eye” in Japanese). Adults range from 4 to 4.5 inches in length, and weigh between 9.75 and 12.75 grams.
The Grey-chinned Minivet (Pericrocotus solaris) is a species of bird in the Campephagidae family. It is found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.
The Collared Trogon, Trogon collaris, is a near passerine bird in the trogon family, Trogonidae. It is found in the warmer parts of the Neotropics, and includes numerous subspecies, including T. c. exoptatus from northern Colombia, northern Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago. It is a resident of tropical forests, where it nests in a hole in a termite nest or tree, with a typical clutch of two white eggs. Collared Trogons feed on insects and fruit, and their broad bills and weak legs reflect their diet and arboreal habits. Although their flight is fast, they are reluctant to fly any distance. They typically perch upright and motionless. Trogons have distinctive male and female plumages, with soft, often colourful, feathers. This species is about 25 cm long. The back, head and breast of the male are green, and a white line separates the breast from the red underparts. The undertail is white with black barring, and the wings are black, vermiculated with white. The female has a brown back, head and breast, a relatively uniform undertail (not clearly barred), and underparts that are slightly paler than in the male. The call is a plaintive caow, caow, caow.
The Long-tailed Sylph (Aglaiocercus kingi) is a species of hummingbird in the Trochilidae family. It is found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. Courtship strategy. The male long-tailed sylph carries characteristic elongated tail feathers. These feathers are so ridiculously long that they hinder his flight: it is difficult for him to carry such finery every day when he relies on his flying skills to survive. Female sylphs, whose tails are of a more modest size, pick out and mate with the males with the longest tail feathers. They therefore ensure that they are mating with a male who is so fit and healthy that he can live well enough to come into breeding condition even when carrying a heavy load.